Pengertian Titrasi

Titrasi adalah proses penentuan banyaknya suatu larutan dgn konsentrasi yg diketahui & diperlukan utk bereaksi secara lengkap dg sejumlah contoh tertentu yg akan di analisis.

Contoh yg akan dianalisis dirujuk sebagai (tak diketahui, unknown). Prosedur analitis yg melibatkan titrasi dgn larutan-larutan yg konsentrasinya diketahui disebut analisis volumetri. Dlm analisis larutan asam & basa, titrasimelibatkan pengukuran yang seksama, volume-volume suatu asam dan suatu basa yang tepat saling menetralkan (Keenan, 1998).

Pada proses titrasi ini digunakan suatu indikator yaitu suatu zat yang ditambahkan sampai seluruh reaksi selesai yang dinyatakan dengan perubahan warna. Perubahan warna menandakan telah tercapainya titik akhir titrasi(Brady, 1999).

Larutan basa yang akan diteteskan (titran) dimasukkan ke dalam buret (pipa panjang berskala) & jumlah yg t’pakai dpt diketahui dr tinggi sebelum &sesudah titrasiLarutan asam yg dititrasi dimasukkan kedlm gelas kimia (erlenmeyer) dg mengukur volumenya terlebih dahulu dg memakai pipet gondok. Untuk mengamati titik ekivalen, dipakai indikator yang warnanya disekitar titik ekivalen. Dalam titrasi yang diamati adalah titik akhir bukan titik ekivalen (syukri, 1999).

Definisi Titrasi Asidimetri

Asidimetri adalah pengukuran konsentrasi asam dg menggunakan larutan baku basa, sedangkan alkalimeteriadalah pengukuran konsentrasi basa dengan menggunakan larutan baku asam. Oleh sebab itu, keduanya disebut juga sebagai titrasi asam-basa. Titrasi adalah proses mengukur volume larutan yang terdapat dalam buret yang ditambahkan ke dalam larutan lain yang diketahui volumenya sampai terjadi reaksi sempurna. Atau dengan perkataan lain untuk mengukur volume titran yang diperlukan untuk mencapai titik ekivalen. Titik ekivalen adalah saat yang menunjukkan bahwa ekivalen perekasi-pereaksi sama. Di dalam prakteknya titik ekivalen sukar diamati, karena hanya meruapakan titik akhir teoritis atau titik akhir stoikometri. Hal ini diatasi dengan pemberian indikator asam-basa yang membantu sehingga titik akhir titrasi dapat diketahui. Titik akhir titrasi meruapakan keadaan di mana penambahan satu tetes zat penitrasi (titran) akan menyebabkan perubahan warna indikator (Anonim a, 2010).

Titrasi asidi-alkalimetri menyangkut reaksi dengan asam kuat-basa kuat, asam kuat-basa lemah, asam lemah-basa kuat, asam kuat-garam dari asam lemah, basa kuat-garam dari basa lemah. Titrasi ini menggunakan indikator pH atau indikator asam-basa sebagai penanda karena memiliki sifat dapat berubah warna apabila pH lingkungannya berubah. Warna asam ialah sebutan warna indikator ketika dalam keadaan asam dan warna basa ketika dalam keadaan basa (Harjadi 1986).

Contoh Analisis Titrasi Asidimetri

Salah satu contoh untuk analisis asidimetri adalah menentukan kandungan ion bikarbonat dalan air sadah. Air sadah atau air keras adalah air yang memiliki kadar mineral yang tinggi, sedangkan air lunak adalah air dengan kadar mineral yang rendah. Selain ion kalsium dan magnesium, penyebab kesadahan juga bisa merupakan ion logam lain maupun garam-garam bikarbonat dan sulfat. Metode paling sederhana untuk menentukan kesadahan air adalah dengan sabun. Dalam air lunak, sabun akan menghasilkan busa yang banyak. Pada air sadah, sabun tidak akan menghasilkan busa atau menghasilkan sedikit sekali busa. Cara yang lebih kompleks adalah melalui titrasi. Kesadahan air total dinyatakan dalam satuan ppm berat per volume (w/v) dari CaCO3 (Anonim b, 2010).

Air sadah sementara Air sadah sementara adalah air sadah yang mengandung ion bikarbonat (HCO3-), atau boleh jadi air tersebut mengandung senyawa kalsium bikarbonat (Ca(HCO3)2) dan atau magnesium bikarbonat (Mg(HCO3)2). Air yang mengandung ion atau senyawa-senyawa tersebut disebut air sadah sementara karena kesadahannya dapat dihilangkan dengan pemanasan air, sehingga air tersebut terbebas dari ion Ca2+ dan atau Mg2+. Dengan jalan pemanasan senyawa-senyawa tersebut akan mengendap pada dasar ketel. Reaksi yang terjadi adalah : Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) –> CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) (Anonim b, 2010).

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